|Transition to nano size state of organic
and inorganic materials is one the most important features of the
modern stage of science and technology development.
Active development of nanomaterial production and application causes
environmental pollution, nanomaterial penetration into human organism
and as a result, impact on the human health. Nanoparticle have the
ability to penetrate through normal organism protective barriers:
gastric, placental, hemato encephalitic ones. Evolution did not create
any protection mechanisms from substance properties which could not
practically be found in traditional environment. Though nanomaterials
and nanotechnologies are used for more than 10 years already, none
of them was studied enough to evaluate objectively health risks associated
with nanomaterials and regulate nanoparticle permissible content in
the environmental components.
Theoretical prerequisites and limited experimental data which might
be found in literature testify both qualitative and quantitative peculiarities
of nanoparticle deleterious effect on the organism in comparison with
well studied powders and occupational dusts in which substance bulk
is micro particles. Very large nanomaterial specific surface and its
specific properties cause intensification of primary toxicity mechanisms
connected with processes of substance dissolution, bio macromolecules
sorbtion, membrane interaction. Size of nanoparticles change essentially
kinetics of substance distribution in the organism and provide their
biologically significant accumulation in target cells and sub cell
structures which are unavailable for micro particles of the same substance.
Thus very much so that even practically nonsoluble and low toxic substances
which did not cause serious hygienic problems in nano state would
appear to be essential health risk factor.
Investigation of nanomaterial impact on human organism, nanoparticle
degradation while interaction with biological material, nanomaterial
impact on metabolic processes in living organisms and development
of methods providing this information is very important and up-to-date.
Immune system which is structurally and functionally organized set
of limfoid cells cooperatively interacting with each other and auxiliary
cell elements on independent immunogenesis stage, might serve as indicator
reflecting nanomaterial impact on the human organism. Organism, antioxidant
protection state, prevention of lipid peroxide oxidation and other
cell degradation processes are of great importance in this case.
Application of investigation methods of oxidant stress and organism
antioxidant protection application as integral index and as evaluation
instrument of medical treatment effectiveness, safety and adequacy
(including pharmacotherapy, cell therapy, target medicine delivery
with the use of nanomaterials) appears to be essential.
Thus, investigation of antioxidant activity (AOA) of biological objects
might become powerful instrument of diagnostics and nanotechnologies
- development of synthesis technologies of magnetite nanoparticles
of the required size and stable enough for carrying out toxicological
- revelation of nanomaterial toxicity on the cell and organism
- revelation of interrelation between nanomaterial impact on the
human organism (in vitro) and oxidation stress occurrence;
- creation of nanomaterial containing sensor and express evaluation
method of oxidant/antioxidant stress of the human organism.
- State Public Health Institution of Sverdlovsk oblast “Institute
of Medical Cell Technologies”;
- Federal State Research Institution “Ekaterinburg medical Research
Prophylaxis and Protection Centre for Industrial Enterprise Staff”
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